von Craig Shrives
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- Why is the possessive case important?
- Important points
What is the possessive case? (with examples)
The possessive case is used to indicate possession (i.e. ownership). The possessive case applies tosubstantive,Pronoun, jdeterminants. For example:
- possessive nouns. In a noun, the possessive case is usually represented by the prefix "de" or the suffix'S(Or just') until the end.
- possessive pronom. The possessive pronouns are "mine", "your", "his", "his", "her", "our" and "you".
- possessive determiners. Possessive determiners are "my", "you", "his", "they", "his", "our" and "his". (Positive determinants are known asPossessive adjectivesin traditional grammar.)
Examples of possessive case
The possessive case is mostly used to show ownership, but not always. See these examples (shaded possessive case):
- I don't have a bank account because I don't knowmi mothersingle name. (comedian Paula Poundstone) (These two are clearly about ownership. They mean, “the mothervonme" and "maiden namevonmy mom.")
- Much can be said about acompanionscharacter throughThey areWay to Eat Jelly Beans (President Ronald Reagan) (These two are clearly about ownership. They mean, “Charactervona companion" and "wayvonhe.")
- Psychiatry allows us to correctourfail to confessour Pais'Defects (Professor Laurence J Peter) (These three also have to do with possession.)
- Mitheoryof evolutionis that Darwin was adopted. (Comedian Steven Wright) (Remember that a noun can be made possessive by prefixing it with "of". This is common when the possessor is not a person. In this example, the possessor is "evolution" possessed by "my theory". You can see that the idea of ownership (i.e. ownership) can be quite abstract.)
- hope ismorningPlatte anof todayDisappointment. (Comedian Evan Esar) (Here are two more examples of abstract property. How can a tense own something? This is common intemporary expressionssuch as "one day's salary" and "two weeks' vacation").
- por Wagnerthe music is better than it looks. (Comedian Edgar Wilson Nye) (This is another example of abstract ownership. Wagner does not own the music. It is musicvonWagner. This is done in terms such as "children's stories", which areforchildren (which do not belong to them) and "Picasso paintings", which are paintingsvonPicasso (not in his possession).)
Complications with the possessive case
The possessive case often causes debate among grammarians. The main problems are:
Q: Is the possessive case the same as the genitive case? A: yes
The terms "acquisitive" and "genitive" can be used interchangeably. However, as the possessive case often has nothing to do with possession, some grammarians distinguish between the "possessive case" and the "genitive case". See this example:
- The usemicrophonegarage to keepby Monetpaint
There are two examples of the possessive case in the previous sentence. However, the second example tells us that the paintings werevonMonet Does not indicate that Monet owned them. Some grammarians would call this the genitive versus possessive case.Read more about the genitive.Q: Are possessive pronouns a type of pronoun? A: yes
Possessive adjuvants (“mi”, “tu”, “su”, “ella”, “su”, “nuestro” and “su”) have a pronominal function (that is, they act as pronouns when replacing nouns). Therefore, they are also classified as possessive pronouns. This can be confusing as possessive pronouns are traditionally "mine", "your", "he", "his", "his", "our" and "you".
Here at Grammar Monster we follow the convention of classifying them all as "possessive" and dividing them into two subgroups: possessive pronouns ("my", "your", etc.) and possessive pronouns ("my", "your", etc. .). ). To avoid this confusion, some grammarians use "mein", "thy", etc.absolute possessive pronoun.Read more about classifying possessive pronouns.
Using apostrophes to form possessive pronouns
Here are the basic rules for forming a possessive pronoun with an apostrophe:
|singular noun ending in -s||crisis||Chris-Hut ou Chris-Hut|
|Plural nouns that do not end in -s||People||people's rights|
Read more about how to form possessive nouns with apostrophes.
Why is the possessive case important?
If you're learning a foreign language, it's worth familiarizing yourself with possessive usage in English, as it's a good starting point for understanding how possession is handled in the foreign language.
Here are five more good reasons to improve the possessive case.
(Reason 1) When using an apostrophe for possession, put it in the right place.
Note the apostrophes in the examples below. They are different sides of the "s", but both are correct.
- the kennel
- the kennel
So is there a possessive apostrophe before or after the "s"? This is the basic rule:
The apostrophe precedes the "s" for a single keeper (eg one dog kennels) and after the "s" when there is more than one keeper (eg two dog kennels).
Note that "dog" and "dogs" are the guardians. The position of the apostrophe has nothing to do with "kennel". The thing possessed can be singular or plural. It has no effect on the apostrophe. See these examples:
- about dog food
- about dog food
- Dinner with two dogs
- two dog nights
However, be careful. There are two exceptions to the basic rule:
(Exception 1) Plural words that do not end in "s":
If the plural of a word does not end in "s" (ex.Kinder,Women,People,Men), the possessive apostrophe is placed before the "s". For example:
- Female shoes
- people's rights
- I thought of men
(Exception 2) Singular words ending in "s":
For singular nouns ending in “s” (p.storms,moises,Chris Wells), the possessive form is written by adding'(just an apostrophe)'Sdepending on how you (yes, you personally) say the possessive form. For example:
- Chris Wells Attitude (That's right for those who sayChris Wells Attitude.)
- Chris Wells Attitude (That's right for those who sayChris Welliz attitude.)
Note that some style guides state that you shouldn't use them'SVersion for religious characters. So when you're talking about people like Jesus or Moses, you might want to go with them.Jesus'jMoises'versions (exceptof Jesusjmoises).Read more about the possessive apostrophe.
(Reason 2) Don't add an apostrophe to a word just because it ends in "s".
This is a common mistake and a grammatical error. This error is most common with plural nouns, but also occurs with verbs (e.g. she She walk'sto work.)
here are some examples:
- I likePork.dogslook at usby catlook at usPorktreat-us likeuntil. (All of these are wrong.)
- i like pigs The dogs are looking at us. Cats despise us. Pigs treat us as equals.
- A spoken word is not a sparrow. oncevolarout, you can't catch it.
- A spoken word is not a sparrow. If he flies, you won't be able to catch him. (This mistake is also sometimes made with verbs. It should be "to fly".)
- of tomatoand oregano is made by Italians; Wine and tarragon make it French; Garlic is good.
- Tomato and oregano make it Italian; Wine and tarragon make it French; Garlic is good. (This error is more common with nouns that end in a vowel, such as videos, Banana.)
Learn about apostrophe misuse.
(Reason 3) Don't confuse possessive pronouns with similar-sounding contractions.
Some of the possessive determiners sound likecontractionsthat have apostrophes. Do not mix them.
Remember that there are no apostrophes in any possessive adjective.
(1) Don't confuseesswindleres:
The contraction "it's" has nothing to do with possession, so it's not a possessive adjunct. "Is" is short for "is" or "has". This is a 100% rule. If you can't expand your "is" to "is" or "has" then you are wrong.
- A country can be judged by the qualityesproverbs.
Read more about him and her.
(2) Don't confuseThey areswindlerThey are:
“Eres” is short for “you are”. This is a 100% rule. If you cannot expand your "you are" to "you are", then you are wrong.
- even if you fallThey areDude, you're still moving forward. (The first "are" is incorrect. The second is correct.)
Read more about you and you.
(3) Don't confuseThey areswindlerthey areÖLeaves.
"Are" is short for "are". This is a 100% rule. If you can't expand your "they are" to "they are" then you are wrong.
- Forgive your enemies but never forgetLeavesnames
Read more about her, there and are.
(Reason 4) Don't use apostropheseco,your,our, Öyour.
There are no apostrophes in possessive pronouns.
- These areyour.
- These areyour.
- Ourare superioryour.
- Ourare superioryour.
(Reason 5) Do not useBe her.
Look at this sentence:
- Each member is responsibleBe herGuests. (This is clunky and outdated.)
Here's the solution: if your natural person can be male or female, use "she".
- Each member is responsibleThey areGuests.
Learn more about how to use them to replace your.
- If its possessor is singular, place the apostrophe before the "s". If it is plural, put it later. (But watch out for exceptions!)
- Don't put an apostrophe in a word just because it ends in "s".
- If you're not sure whether to use "is/it", "his/you are" or "his/they are", expand to the two-word version ("is", "you are", "they are" " . Are"). If your sentence doesn't make sense now, use the first one. There are no apostrophes in a possessive adjunct.
- No hay apóstrofes en "you", "your", "our" or "your".
- Use "her" instead of "his/her"
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Test the possessive caseWhat is the nominative case?What is the accusative?What is the dative?What is the genitive?What are possessive nouns?What are absolute possessive pronouns?What are possessive adjectives?What are possessive pronouns?Learn more about creating possessive nouns with apostrophesGlossary of grammar terms